The Current Phase:
The objectives of a course are implemented through the materials.
This phase discusses the factors that need to be kept in
mind while selecting materials. A great deal of thought
is required for material selection – appropriateness,
suitability, adaptability, effectiveness etc.
8 – Text books and Materials
development is both a field of study and practical undertaking.
As a field it studies principles and procedures of the
design, implementation and evaluation of language teaching
materials. it involves the production , evaluation and
adaptation of language teaching materials , by teachers
for their own classrooms and by materials writers for
sale or distribution. Ideally these two concepts are interactive.
can include anything that is used to teach language.
can be linguistic, visual, auditory , or kinesthetic and
they can be presented through live performance , display
or on CD……….
can be instructional in that they inform learners about
the language or experiential I that they provide exposure
to the language in use, they can be elicitative in that
they stimulate language use or they can be exploratory
in that they seek discoveries about language use.
until 1990s was this particular agenda brought to notice.
Until then it was treated as a subsection of methodology.
But finally people started to give more prominence to
the study of material development.
the need to incorporate this as part of the course?
answer to that is simple, all teachers are basically material
developers, and an effective teacher should possess the
skill to develop material based on class need. There cannot
be a strict pattern that everybody should follow while
developing materials. Therefore it is mandatory that a
guideline on how to develop class appropriate material
should be given to the teachers.
in material development
Do learners need a course book?
Some say that it is the most convenient for of presenting
material as it helps to achieve consistency and continuation.
Other than this it gives the learners a sense of system
and cohesion. But on the other
hand the others argue that it is inevitably superficial
and cannot cater to all the diverse needs of all users..
On top of that it imposes uniformity of syllabus and
approach and removes initiative and power form teachers
Should materials be learning or acquisition focused
Despite the theory of implicit acquisition of language
form comprehensible input m most language text book
aim at explicit learning of language plus practice.
The main exceptions are materials developed in 1980?s
which aim at facilitating informal acquisition of communicative
competence through communication activities such as
discussions , projects , games , simulations and drama
.These activities are popular but treated as supplementary
materials in addition to course books which still focused
on the explicit learning of discreet features of the
language . The debate about the relative merits of conscious
learning and subconscious acquisition continues with
some people advocating a strong focus on language experience
through a task based or text-based approach and some
advocating experience plus language awareness activities.
to use as material
• videos, CD-ROMs,
• DVDs, dictionaries,
• grammar books,
• photocopied exercises,
• all kinds of realia,
• lectures and talks by guest speakers,
• Internet sources
Materials can be divided into non-technical and technical
media. In the first category
Examples of non technical materials are :
• magnet board
• Flannel board
• index cards
• wall charts
• board games
• mounted pictures
• line drawing
• realia, pamphlet
to note: These items have many advantages in
places where technical resources are scarce. They are
also cheap and user-friendly.
of technical materials are
• players, records
• record players
• CD´s/CD players
• Teletrainers films
• film projectors
• computer software
• overhead transparencies
• overhead projectors language lab
• multimedia lab
• opaque projectors
• slides, filmstrips/
• slide and filmstrip projectors.
to note: Contrary to those from the first group,
the latter are expensive and less user-friendly.
of choosing the right material:
• The teaching process is made easier
and materials may be used to explain, exemplify
or practice the content presented to students.
• Materials can represent a source
of motivation for students
• Materials change the dynamics of
the class routines through the possibility
of manipulating objects, accessing audiovisual
material or promoting interaction with others.
• Materials, if chosen adequately,
can promote the integration of language
skills by addressing language and content
in a holistic way
• Materials can also help the teacher
address the individual differences of students.
• The role of English in the country,
• The role of English in schools
• The role of teachers, management
• The available resources,
• The support personnel,
• The number of pupils,
• The available time,
• The physical environment,
• The socio-cultural environment
principles for developing materials: that applies to the
needs, wants and situations faced in diverse settings,
Particularity: seeks to facilitate the
advancement of a context-sensitive, location specific
pedagogy that is based on a true understanding of local
linguistic, social, cultural, and political particularities.
Practicality: seeks to rupture the reified
role relationship between theorizers and practitioners
by enabling and encouraging teachers to theorize from
their practice and to practice what they theorize.
Possibility: seeks to tap the sociopolitical
consciousness that students bring with them to the classroom
so that it can also function as a catalyst for identity
formation and social transformation
a logical consequence of these principles, teacher educators
must study more closely how they can help future teachers
in using materials in the EFL classroom. The particularity
principle is important in our materials training as teacher
educators need to provide student teachers with alternatives
to their particular contexts, since they may be EFL teachers
in rural settings, underprivileged neighborhoods in urban
areas or private schools with various types of teaching
materials. In the search for practicality, teacher educators
need to help students find a situated, eclectic, personal
approach to using materials in their teaching. This may
allow them to reflect on their experience and write about
new ways to teach with and without materials or to look
for alternative ways to use traditional materials. The
possibility principle may have an application in the awareness
training possibility of changing the paradigm of EFL teachers
from mere materials consumers in ESL settings to teachers
capable of creating effective teaching conditions regardless
of the availability of certain teaching materials.
of a popular material
Viewing in EFL Listening : Movie videos should not be
regarded as merely
a peripheral „extra? in a listening class; on the
contrary, they can function as the core
content and become an integral part of the curriculum.
presenting the movies in the classroom, King (2002) proposes
Sequential: In sequential approach,
the teacher exposed
2. Scene-by-scene or one segment
of the movie at one time.
3. The single-scene approach, as
the name suggests, requires the teacher to use only
one particular scene for the language instruction
4. The selective method: involves
the viewing of a few scenes chosen by the teacher
from one movie.
5. Whole-film: lastly, in the whole-film
approach the teacher shows the movie in full length
adds that while presenting movies in any of these approaches
is possible, the decision to adopt a particular approach
depends mainly on the instructional objectives and the
characteristics of the students.
of using movie as material
• Follow a plot easily and get involved
in plot development.
• Learn to pronounce proper nouns
in different disciplines.
• Acquire colloquial, context-bound
expressions and slang.
• Process a text rapidly and improve
• Keep up with closed captioning that
accompany the native-speed spoken English.
• Provide relaxing, stress-free learning
environments where students can comprehend
jokes and have a few hearty laughs.
• Learn different strategies for processing
• help students develop a high tolerance
• enhance students? listening strategies
such as guessing meaning from context and
inferring strategies by visual clues, facial
expressions, voice and sound track.
• promote active viewing and listening
for key words and main ideas.
• motivate students to make use of
authentic English material on their own.
• provide students with the opportunity
to experience a great sense of accomplishment
important concepts related to the construction of language
has been argued earlier in this paper that teachers occasionally
face a situation where they?re required to devise their
own materials for the lessons ,in that case 7 variables
are to be taken onto account when writing materials rfor
Students – their needs and learning objectives;
2. Teachers – their abilities, proficiency,
3. Syllabus – the approach;
4. Methodology – its implementation;
5. Resources – their availability;
6. Time – availability;
7. Finance – amount..
The teachers have to keep these variables in mind while
developing materials, and necessary adjustments should
be done if the materials being constructed turn out not
to conform to the above variables. It is apparent that
materials development is a process, and the teacher should
be aware that this process should follow a certain procedure
Teachers see materials as a very important component in
effective teaching. They tend to associate effective teaching
with the availability of different kinds of materials,
teachers require longer and deeper training in the use
of technical and non- technical materials. They must be
acquainted with different possibilities to make adequate
choices in their classroom settings.
educators need to expose students to real school contexts
in which students face the limitations in the use of materials
experienced in regular EFL classrooms. Additionally, they
need to train future teachers in the use of applications
of multimedia in teaching and learning foreign languages
as private schools and language centers include the use
of these materials as strengths in their EFL programs.
and adaptation of textbooks
books are key component in most language programs . in
some situations they serve as the basis for much of the
language input learners receive and the language practice
that occurs in the classroom They may provide the basis
for the content of the lessons , the balance of skills
taught and the kinds of language practice the students
take part in . In other situations, the text book may
serve primarily to supplement the teacher?s instruction.
For learners the textbook may provided by the teacher.
In the case of experienced teachers textbooks may also
serve as a form of teacher training – they provide
ideas on how to plan and teach lessons as well as formats
that teachers can use.
of the language teaching that occurs throughout the world
today could not take place without the extensive use of
commercial textbooks .Learning how to use and adapt textbooks
is hence an important part of a teacher´s professional
and limitations of textbooks
They provide structure and a syllabus for a programme
without textbooks a programme may have no central
core and learners may receive a syllabus that has
been systematically planned and developed.
2. They standardize instruction. The use of a textbook
in a programme can ensure that the students in different
classes receive similar content and therefore can
be tested in the same way.
3. They maintain quality. If a well developed textbook
is used students are exposed to materials that have
been tried and tested that are based on sound learning
principles that are paced appropriately
4. They are efficient. They save teacher?s time enabling
teachers to devote time to teaching rather than material?s
5. They can provide effective language models and
input .Textbooks can provide support for teachers
whose first language is not English and who may not
be able to generate accurate language input on their
6. They can train teachers If teachers have limited
teaching experience a text book together with the
teacher?s manual can serve as a medium of initial
there can be several negative effete:
They may distort language Text books often present an
idealized view of the world or fail to represent real
issues In order to make textbooks acceptable controversial
topics are avoided instead an idealized view of the
world is portrayed as the norm.
They may not reflect student needs. Since text books
are published for global markets they often do not reflect
the needs of the local students hence texts require
such an array of text books and other kinds of instructional
materials to choose from teachers need to be able to make
informed judgments about textbooks and teaching materials
Evaluation can only be done considering something in relation
to its purpose. A book may be ideal in one situation because
it matches the needs of that situation. However the same
book can turn out to unsuitable in a different situation.
Before evaluating a textbook therefore certain issues
need to be checked:
The role of the textbook in the
Is there a well developed curriculum which
describes the objectives syllabus and
content of the program or will this be
determined by the book? .
Will the book or the textbook series provide
the core of the programme or is it one
of several different books that will be
Will this be used in small classes or
in large ones?
Will learners be expected to use workbooks
as well or should the text book provide
all the practice students need?
The teachers in the programme
How experienced are the teachers in the
programme and what is their level of training?
Are they native speakers of English? If
not how well do they speak English?
Do teachers tend to follow the textbook
closely or do they use it for reference?
Do teachers participate in selection of
books that they teach from?
- Are teachers free to adapt and supplement
The learners in the programme
Is each student required to buy a book?
What do learners typically expect?
Will they use the book in class and at
How will they use the book in class? Is
it the primary source of classroom activities?
How much are they prepared to pay for
a book ? Next we will read about criteria
for textbook selection.
Criteria for textbook selection
They should cater to the learners needs and match
the aims and objectives of the language programme
They should reflect the uses which learners will
make of the language so that they can learn effectively
They should have a clear role as a support for learning.
Like teachers they mediate between the target language
and the learning process.
The type of evaluation a book receives will also
reflect the concerns of the evaluator. One teacher
may look at a book in terms its usability. The teacher
is primarily interested in whether the book works
easily in her class, can be used flexibly and could
easily be adopted. Another teacher may look at a
book much more critically in term of it theoretical
orientation and approach If it is a book that teaches
conversational skills what theory of conversation
is it based on? What kind of syllabus is it based
on … are the concerned questions that are
in each situation questions specific to that situation
need to be generated around the main issues involved in
text book evaluation and selection.
form of adaptation is almost always required to make a
text book more suitable.
• Content may need to be changed because it
does not suit the target learners age , gender ,
social class, occupation, religion or cultural background
Adapting or deleting content
The book may contain too much or too little of the
programme whole units may have to be dropped. For
example a course may focus only
on listening and speaking therefore the unit on
reading and writing has
to be dropped .
Eliminating the things they already know, or aren't
Focusing on the type of activities that fit your
objectives - e.g. dialogues, readings, listening,
writing or grammar activities
Putting the activities into an order that takes
into account what you know about the student?s previous
English learning, and the student's life view
tasks or reformat
This means changing the activities in the text.
Timing – how much time is spent on each activity?
Formatting – how will the activity be presented
to the class – e.g. the textbook may specify
a “listening” activity, but the teacher
may decide to change this to a “reading”
activity followed by discussion and conversation.
Exercises and activities may need to be changed
to give them additional focus. For example a listening
activity that focuses only on listening for information
is adapted so that students listen a second m or
third time for as different purpose.
Exercises may contain insufficient
practice and additional practice tasks may need to be
added. Additional focus.
For example a listening activity that focuses only on
listening for information is adapted so that students
listen a second m or third time for as different purpose
ability to be able to adapt textbooks in these ways is
an essential skill for teachers to develop . Through the
process of adaptation the teacher personalizes the text
making it a better teaching resource as well as individualizes
it for particular group of learners.
the use of materials
matter what form of materials teachers make use of whether
they teach form text books , manuals or … they represent
plans for teaching. They do not represent
process of teaching. As teachers use they adapt the material
to cater to the immediate situation .it is useful therefore
to collect information on how teachers use course books
and other teaching materials in their teaching .
information collected can serve the following purposes.
To document effective ways of using material
To provide feedback on how materials wok
To keep a record of additions deletions and supplementary
materials that teachers may have used.
To assist other teachers in using the materials
may take the following forms :
visits to see how teachers us the textbook and to find
the quality of influence the book ahs on the classroom.
meetings in which the teachers discuss their experience
with text books .
The use of reflection sheets or other forms of
written feedback in which teachers make a brief note about
what worked well what didn´t work well
Take a look at any two course books and evaluate them
based on the following points:
• Level to be used for
• Skills that they attempt to develop
• Format – attractive, easy to use
• Grammar highlights
• Can it be adapted or is it rigid?
• Which would you choose out of the two and why?